Country: MONGOLIAmongolia

Capital: Ulaan Batur

Geographic Coordinates: 46 00 N, 105 00 E

Population: 3,086,918 (July 2010 est.)

Main Religion: Buddhism

Language: Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian

Government Type: Parliamentary

Chief of State: President Tsakhia ELBEGDORJ (since 18 June 2009); Head of Government: Prime Minister Sukhbaatar BATBOLD

Main Industries: construction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, and gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing

GDP in US Dollars (per capita): $3,200 (2009 est.)

Currency Code: Togrog (tugrik) (MNT)

Life Expectancy: 64 years (men), 70 years (women) (UN)

Environment - current issues: Limited natural fresh water resources in some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; The burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air in Ulaan Batur; Deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain.

Issues facing Women and Children: 

  • Thousands of children struggle to survive by begging on the streets, engaging in hard labour, becoming sex workers, or getting involved in crime. These forms of exploitation intensify child poverty by inhibiting the normal physical growth and psychosocial development processes of childhood in the midst of national development efforts.
  • Although women have intrinsic value, the health of children is intricately linked to the health of their mothers. Among malnourished mothers, miscarriage and premature delivery are common.

Land Mine Ban Signatory: N

Local Media: Press: Odriyn Sonin (Daily News), Onoodor, Zuuny Medee, Unen (Truth); Radio and TV: Mongolian National Broadcaster (MNB), Mongolian Radio

Interesting Fact: The local alcoholic drink is airag, fermented mare's milk. Mongolia is the largest landlocked country in the world.

Famous for: Gobi Desert, Dornod Mongol (rolling steppe), Gun-Galuut Nature Reserve, ger or yut (nomadic abodes), byaslag (cheese), aaruul (dried curds), cahsmere, carpets